Unix Guide Matrix

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Added run-level modes for all operating system types, 27 October 2006.

Directory Mappings  Linux (RedHat) Solaris Tru64 AIX HP-UX FreeBSD
Root filesystem /                  {/dev/sda1} /  {/dev/vx/dsk/rootvol} /     {/dev/rz0a} /              {/dev/hd4} /          {/dev/vg00/lvol1} /       {/dev/ad0s1a}
Home directory   /export/home
  /home          {/dev/hd1} /home      {/dev/vg00/lvol4}  
  /tmp           {/dev/hd3} /tmp       {/dev/vg00/lvol6}  
    /usr  /usr    {/dev/rz0g} /usr           {/dev/hd2} /usr       {/dev/vg00/lvol7} /usr    {/dev/ad0s1f}
    /var   /var        {/dev/hd9var} /var       {/dev/vg00/lvol8} /var    {/dev/ad0s1e}
Sample configuration files       - /usr/newconfig  
User Accounts Linux (RedHat) Solaris Tru64 AIX HP-UX FreeBSD
Password files /etc/passwd
/etc/passwd  /etc/passwd
Groups file /etc/group /etc/group /etc/group /etc/group
Maximum user ID 65535 2147483647 65535 4294967295 2147483647 65535
Allow/deny remote login /etc/securetty
User nobody's id 99 60001 & 65534(nobody4) 65534 4294967294 -2 65534
Group nobody's id 99 60002 & 65534(nogroup) 65534 4294967294 -2(nogroup) 65534
Recover root password {lilo}
linux S
passwd root

kernel vmlinuz-2.4.9-13 single   ro root=/dev/hda8
initrd /initrd-2.4.9-13.img
passwd root
boot cdrom -s
mkdir /tmp/a
mount /dev/c0t0d0s0 /tmp/a
vi /tmp/a/etc/shadow
press the HALT Button or (Control-P)
>>>boot -fl s
passwd root
boot from CD/Tape
Start Limited Shell
getrootfs hdisk0
vi /etc/security/passwd
Interact with IPL ? Y
ISL>hpux -iS
passwd root
ok boot -s
passwd root
Create new user useradd useradd useradd mkuser useradd adduser
Delete user userdel userdel userdel rmuser userdel rmuser
List users   logins   lsuser -f ALL logins  
Modify user account usermod usermod usermod chuser -a usermod  
General Commands Linux (RedHat) Solaris Tru64 AIX HP-UX FreeBSD
Unique host ID hostid hostid hostid hostid uname -i  
Administrator linuxconf admintool sysman smit sam  
Performance monitor top top top top
System activity reporter sar {sysstat} sar /usr/opt/svr4/bin/sar sar sar sa
Virtual memory statistics vmstat vmstat vmstat vmstat vmstat vmstat
I/O statistics iostat {sysstat} iostat iostat iostat iostat iostat
Error logs dmesg  dmesg uerf -R -o full alog -o -t boot
dmesg dmesg
Physical RAM 64 GB {>2.3.24} 16TB 4TB 1TB 4TB  
Shared memory sysctl kernel.shmmax     2.75GB 8TB  
Process data space 900 MB     2GB 4GB  
Swap device /dev/sda2 /dev/vx/dsk/swapvol /dev/rz0b /dev/hd6 /dev/vg00/lvol2 /dev/ad0s1b
Swap file type partition type 82  swap raw /etc/swapspaces swap swap
Display swap size free swap -l swapon -s lsps -a swapinfo -a swapinfo
Activate swap swapon -a swap -a swapon -a swapon -a swapon -a swapon -a
Printers Linux Solaris Tru64 AIX HP-UX FreeBSD
Printer queues /var/spool/lpd/lp/* /etc/lp/interfaces/* /usr/spool/lpd /etc/qconfig /etc/lp/interface/* /var/spool/print
Stop LP  /etc/init.d/lpd stop /usr/lib/lp/lpshut /sbin/init.d/lpd stop stopsrc -s lpd lpshut  
Start LP /etc/init.d/lpd start /usr/lib/lp/lpsched /sbin/init.d/lpd start startsrc -s lpd lpsched lpd
Submit print jobs lpr lp
lp lp
LP statistics lpq lpstat lpstat enq -A
lpstat lpq
Remove print jobs lprm cancel
enq -x
cancel cancel
Add printer queue printtool lpadmin -p pq lprsetup smit mkpq lpadmin -p pq  
Remove printer queue   lpadmin -x pq lprsetup smit rmpq lpadmin -x pq  
Make default printer   lpadmin -d pq export PRINTER="lp" export LPDEST="pq" lpadmin -d pq  
TCP/IP Linux (RedHat) Solaris Tru64 AIX HP-UX FreeBSD
Network IP configuration /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/  /etc/hostname.*
/etc/rc.config lsattr -E -l inet0 /etc/rc.config.d/netconf /etc/rc.conf
Hosts IP addresses /etc/hosts /etc/inet/hosts /etc/hosts /etc/hosts /etc/hosts /etc/hosts
Name service switch /etc/nsswitch.conf /etc/nsswitch.conf /etc/svc.conf /etc/netsvc.conf /etc/nsswitch.conf /etc/host.conf
Network parameters sysctl -a | grep net ndd /dev/[tcp|ip] ?   no -a ndd -h sysctl
Routing daemon routed in.routed routed gated gated routed
NIC configurations ifconfig -a ifconfig -a ifconfig -a ifconfig -a lanscan -v ifconfig -a
Secondary IP address modprobe ip_alias
ifconfig eth0:1 IP
ifconfig hme0:1 IP up ifconfig ln0 alias ifconfig en0 alias IP  ifconfig lan0:1 IP  ifconfig xl0 alias IP
Login prompt /etc/issue BANNER @
/etc/issue HERALD @
telnetd -b /etc/issue   
Increase the number of pseudo-terminals cd /dev
./MAKEDEV -v pty
set pt_cnt = #   {SYSV}
set npty = #      {BSD}
ptsl 0 # ldterm ttcompat
boot -r
cd /dev
odmget -q "attribute=num and uniquetype=pty/pty/pty" PdAt | sed "s/0-64/0-512/" |
odmchange -q "attribute=num and uniquetype=pty/pty/pty" -o PdAt
chdev -l pty0 -anum=256 -P
rebuild your kernel with these new values NPTY=# 
insf -d ptys -n #
insf -d ptym -n #
insf -d pts -s # -e -v
Maximum number of ptys 256 176                {BSD}
3000              {SYSV}
8192 512 {MAXUSERS}  
Remote shell rsh rsh rsh remsh
remsh rsh
YP/NIS service binder /sbin/ypbind /usr/lib/netsvc/yp/ypbind /usr/sbin/ypbind /usr/lib/netsvc/yp/ypbind  /usr/lib/netsvc/yp/ypbind  /usr/sbin/ypbind
System Files Linux (RedHat) Solaris Tru64 AIX HP-UX FreeBSD
NFS exported /etc/exports /etc/dfs/dfstab
/etc/exports /etc/exports /etc/exports /etc/exports
NFS client-mounted directories /var/lib/nfs/xtab /etc/rmtab /var/adm/mountdtab /etc/xtab /etc/xtab  
Maximum file system 2 TB  1 TB
8000 TB {vxfs}
128 GB {<= 3.2G}
512 GB {>= 4.0}
16 TB {advfs}
128 GB 128 GB  
Maximum file size 2 GB     {512B block size} 
8192 GB  {8KB block size} 
1 TB
2 GB {=<2.5.1}
128 GB {<= 3.2G}
512 GB {>= 4.0}
16 TB {advfs}
64 GB 128 GB  
Maximum number file descriptors sysctl fs.file-max 64 K 64 K 64 K 60~ K  
Disk/LVM Commands Linux (RedHat) Solaris Tru64 AIX HP-UX:Disk &Filesystem FreeBSD
Filesystem table /etc/fstab /etc/vfstab /etc/fstab /etc/filesystems /etc/fstab /etc/fstab
Free disk blocks df -k df -k df -k df -k bdf df -k
Device listing cat /proc/devices sysdef   lsdev -C /sbin/ioscan  
Disk information cat /proc/scsi/scsi0/sda/model format -d c#t#d#
file /dev/rrz0c bootinfo -s hdisk#  diskinfo /dev/rdsk/c#t#d# fdisk -v ad0
Disk label fdisk -l prtvtoc disklabel -p rz0 lspv -l hdisk# pvdisplay -v /dev/dsk/C#t#d# disklabel ad0
LVM concepts logical extents sub disk sub disk Partition  logical extents sub disk
  logical volume volume volume volume logical volume volume
    Plex Plex     Plex
  volume group disk group disk group volume group volume group  
Journal filesystem type ext3
vxfs advfs jfs vxfs  
Default volume group   /dev/vx/dsk/rootdg /dev/vol/rootdg /dev/rootvg /dev/vg00  
Display volume group vgdisplay -v vxprint -l -g rootdg volprint -l -g rootdg lsvg -l rootvg vgdisplay -v vg00  
Modify physical volume pvchange     chpv pvchange  
Prepare physical disk pvcreate vxdiskadd voldiskadd mkdev -c disk -l hdisknum pvcreate  
List physical volume pvdisplay vxprint -dl volprint -dl lspv pvdisplay vinum ld
Remove disk from volume group vgreduce vxdg rmdisk voldg rmdisk reducevg vgreduce  
Move logical volumes to other physical volumes pvmove vxassist move volassist move migratepv pvmove vinum move -f drive object
Create volume group vgcreate vxdg init voldg init mkvg vgcreate  
Remove volume group vgremove       vgremove  
Volume group availability vgchange     chvg
Restore volume group vgcfgrestore       vgcfgrestore  
Exports volume group vgexport vxdg deport voldg deport exportvg vgexport  
Imports volume group vgimport vxdg import voldg import importvg vgimport  
Volume group listing vgscan     lsvg vgscan  
Change logical volume characteristics  lvchange  vxedit set voledit set chlv lvchange  
List logical volume lvdisplay vxprint -vl volprint -vl lslv lvdisplay vinum lv
Make logical volume lvcreate vxassist make volassist make mklv lvcreate  
Extend logical volume lvextend vxassist growto volassist growto extendlv lvextend  
Reduce logical volume lvreduce vxassist shrinkto volassist shrinkto AIX reduce LV lvreduce  
Remove logical volume lvremove vxedit rm voledit -g rootdg -rf rm vol1 rmlv lvremove vinum rm vol
Prepare boot volumes lilo vxbootsetup   bootlist -m normal lvlnboot  
Remove boot volumes         lvrmboot  
Extend file system resize2fs
mkfs -M
  chfs -a size=# /mt extendfs /dev/vg00/lvol8
fsadm -F vxfs -b {LE * 1024} /mt
Reduce/split mirrors lvsplit     rmlvcopy lvsplit  
Merge mirrors lvmerge       lvmerge  
Create mirrors   vxassist mirror volassist make vol 100mb mirror=true mklv -c 2 lvcreate -m 1 vinum mirror drive
Add mirrors       mklvcopy lv 2  lvextend -m 1  
Create striped volumes lvcreate -i 3 -I 64 vxassist make vol 100mb layout=raid5 volassist make vol 100mb layout=stripe mklv -u 3 -S 64K lvcreate -i 3 -I 64 vinum stripe drive
System recovery tape     /usr/sys/bin/btcreate mksysb -i /dev/rmt0 /opt/ignite/bin/make_recovery  
Backup tar cvf /dev/rst0 / ufsdump vdump savevg -i rootvg fbackup vinum saveconfig
Restore tar xvf /dev/rst0  ufsrestore vrestore restvg  frecover  
Miscellaneous Linux (RedHat) Solaris Tru64 AIX HP-UX FreeBSD
Startup script /etc/rc.d/rc /etc/init.d /sbin/init.d /etc/rc /sbin/rc /etc/rc
Kernel /boot/vmlinuz /kernel/genunix /vmunix /usr/lib/boot/unix_up /stand/vmunix /kernel
Kernel parameters sysctl -a sysdef -i sysconfig
lsattr -E -l sys0 sysdef
sysctl -a
Reconfigure the kernel cd /usr/src/linux 
make mrproper 
make menuconfig 
make dep 
make clean 
make bzImage
make install
make modules
make modules_install
cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/vmlinuz-2.2.16
mkinitrd /boot/initrd-2.2.16.img 2.2.16
vi /etc/lilo.conf
vi /etc/system
doconfig chdev -l sys0 -a  cd /stand/build
/usr/lbin/sysadm/system_prep -v -s system
vi system
mk_kernel -s system
cd /stand
mv system system.prev
mv vmunix vmunix.prev
mv dlkm dlkm.prev
mv /stand/build/system system
kmupdate /stand/build/vmunix_test
cd /sys/i386/conf
config KERNEL
cd ../../compile/KERNEL
make depend
make install
List modules lsmod modinfo   genkex kmadmin -s kldstat
Load module insmod modload     kmadmin -L kldload
Unload module rmmod modunload     kmadmin -U kldunload
Initialize system netconf sys-unconfig netsetup install_assist set_parms initial /stand/sysinstall
Physical RAM free prtconf uerf | grep memory bootinfo -r grep -i Physical /var/adm/syslog/syslog.log sysctl hw.physmem
Kernel bits getconf LONG_BIT isainfo -kv 64 bootinfo -K getconf KERNEL_BITS  
Crash utility lcrash crash kdbx crash adb crash
Trace system calls strace truss trace syscalls tusc truss
Miscellaneous Linux (RedHat) Solaris Tru64 AIX HP-UX FreeBSD
Machine model uname -m uname -imp uname -p uname -m
bootinfo -m
uname -m
uname -m
OS Level uname -r uname -r sizer -v oslevel uname -r uname -r
Run Level runlevel who -r who -r who -r who -r  
  rc0 - system halted.
rc1 - single-user mode.
rc2-4 - multiuser modes, level 2 or 3 depends on distro.
rc5 - multiuser with GUI, most (but not all) distros.
rc6 - reboot system, return to default run level.
S, s - single user mode, /etc/inittab not required, basic filesystems mounted.
rc0 - firmware (sparc).
rc1 - administrator mode, local filesystems mounted, essential system processes, also single user mode.
rc2 - multiuser mode, multiuser environment processes and daemons.
rc3 - multiuser extended mode, local resources available over network.
rc4 - alternative multiuser configuration, not necessary for operation, usually unused.
rc5 - power-down.
rc6 - reboot.
a, b, c - /etc/inittab pseudo-state entries with the a, b, or c run level set.
Q, q - re-examine /etc/inittab.
rc0 - system completely shut down, processes terminated and filesystems unmounted.
rc1 - single-user mode, services and daemons terminated and filesystems unmounted.
rc2 - multiuser mode, without NFS.
i rc3 - multiuser mode, normal operation.
rc4 - unused.
rc5 - unused.
rc6 - reboot.
rc0 - reserved.
rc1 - reserved.
rc2 - (default) multiuser mode.
rc3-rc9 - administrator-defined.
rc0 - shut down, processes terminated, filesystems unmounted.
rc1,s,S - single-user mode, services and daemons terminated, filesystems unmounted.
rc2 - multiuser mode, without NFS.
rc3 - multiuser mode, normal operational.
rc4 - multiuser mode, with VUE (GUI).
rc6 - reboot.
rc-1 - permanently insecure mode—always run system at level 0.
rc0 - insecure mode—immutable and append-only flags changeable, devices may be read or written subject to their permissions.
rc1 - secure mode, system immutable and append-only flags may not be turned off; mounted filesystems, /dev/mem, and /dev/kmem read-only.
rc2 - highly secure mode, same as secure mode, plus disks read-only whether mounted or not, settimeofday() can only advance the time.
Core dump files   /var/crash/`uname -n`   /var/adm/ras /var/adm/crash  
Miscellaneous Linux (RedHat) Solaris Tru64 AIX HP-UX FreeBSD
Boot single user {lilo}
linux S

kernel vmlinuz-2.4.9-13 single   ro root=/dev/hda8
initrd /initrd-2.4.9-13.img
ok boot -s >>> boot -fl s Key on service mode/F4
Boot from CD/Tape
Select Maintenance
Limited function Shell
Interact with IPL ? Y
ISL>hpux -iS
ok boot -s
Maintenance mode   ok boot -as     >boot
Interact with IPL ? Y
ISL>hpux -lm
ok boot -as
Interrupt key   Stop-A control-P   control-B  
Return to console   ok go     co  
Timezone management /etc/sysconfig/clock /etc/TIMEZONE
/etc/TIMEZONE /etc/localtime
NTP dæmon /etc/ntp.conf
rcmgr set XNTPD_CONF YES
startsrc -s xntpd
/etc/rc.conf {xntpd_enable="YES"}
Software Linux (RedHat) Solaris Tru64 AIX HP-UX FreeBSD
Install software rpm -i package pkgadd setld -l installp -a swinstall pkg_add
Uninstall software rpm -e package pkgrm setld -d installp -u swremove pkg_delete
List installed software rpm -qa pkginfo setld -i lslpp -L all swlist pkg_info -a
Verify installed software rpm -V package pkginfo -i
pkginfo -p
setld -v lppchk -v swlist -l fileset -a state  
List all files rpm -ql package pkgchk -l package setld -i package lslpp -f fileset swlist -l file fileset pkg_info -L package
List installed patches   patchadd -p dupatch -track -type patch instfix -i swlist -l patch
what /stand/vmunix
Package owner rpm -qf file pkgchk -l -p path   lslpp -w path swlist -l file | grep path  
SW directory /var/lib/rpm /var/sadm /var/adm/smlogs /usr/lpp /var/adm/sw/ /var/db/pkg
Devices Linux (RedHat) Solaris Tru64 AIX HP-UX FreeBSD
Devices /dev /devices /dev /dev /dev /dev
Install devices for attached peripherals /dev/MAKEDEV drvconfig
scu scan edt
scsimgr -scan_all
cfgmgr -v insf -e /dev/MAKEDEV
Remove device   rem_drv   rmdev -l rmsf  
Device drivers   prtconf -D   lscfg lsdev  
CPU cat /proc/cpuinfo psrinfo -v psrinfo -v lsdev -Cc processor ioscan -fnC processor sysctl hw.model
List terminal   pmadm -l   lsdev -Cc tty ioscan -fnC tty  
Diagnostics lspci
/usr/platform/`uname -m`/
ok test-all
  diag stm pciconf -l
Whole disk /dev/sda /dev/c#t#d0s2 /dev/rz0c /dev/hdisk# /dev/dsk/c#t#d0 /dev/ad0s1c
CDROM /dev/cdrom /dev/dsk/c#t6d0s2 /dev/rz3c /dev/cd0 /dev/dsk/c#t2d0 /dev/acd0c
CDROM file type iso9660 hsfs cdfs cdrfs cdfs cd9660
Rewinding tape drive /dev/rst0               { c 9 0} /dev/rmt/0 /dev/rmt0 /dev/rmt0 /dev/rmt/0m /dev/rwt0d
Non-rewinding tape drive /dev/nrst0           { c 9 128 } /dev/rmt/0n /dev/nrmt0 /dev/rmt0.1 /dev/rmt/0mn /dev/nrwt0d
Floppy drive /dev/fd0 /dev/diskette /dev/fd0c /dev/rfd0 - /dev/fd0
Links Linux (RedHat) Solaris Tru64 AIX HP-UX FreeBSD
Online manual Linux documentation Project Solaris 10 documentation Tru64 documents AIX 5.3 documentation HP-UX reference manual FreeBSD hand book
Technical support Red Hat support SunSolve Alpha Systems Support p5 TechSupport IT Resource Center  
Free software Linux software map Sun freeware Tru64 demos, shareware and freeware Public-domain software library HP-UX ports FreeBSD primary site
Fun links AIX command primer Developer downloads
Compiler (gcc)
HP’s gdb (wdb)
Newer version of Perl