The rpm Package Manager

This just covers the rpm specification and its format. See http://vipe.technion.ac.il/~shlomif/lecture/Autotools/slides/issues/rpm-spec.html elaboration.

More good links to peruse...


Installing a package...

To install a package:

	[email protected]:~> rpm -ivh package-path

To upgrade an existing package:

	[email protected]:~> rpm -Uvh package-path


Removing a package...

Get the package-name via inspection (see “Inquiring about a package’ below). To remove (uninstall) a package:

	[email protected]:~> rpm -e package-name

Inquiring about a package...

Presently loaded?

	[email protected]:~> rpm -qa | grep vas
	libgnomecanvas-2.12.0-2
	vasyp-3.1.0-19
	vasclnts-3.1.0-19
	kdebindings3-javascript-3.4.2-8
	libgnomecanvas-doc-2.12.0-2
	libgnomecanvas-devel-2.12.0-2
	vasproxy-3.1.0-19
	vasgps-3.1.0-19

Can a package be unloaded? Try it with option -e (as expected) accompanied by --test.

	[email protected]:~> rpm -e --test vasclnts-3.1.0-19
	error: Failed dependencies:
	        libvas.so.4 is needed by (installed) vasgps-3.1.0-19
	        libvas.so.4 is needed by (installed) vasyp-3.1.0-19
	        libvas.so.4 is needed by (installed) vasproxy-3.1.0-19

Package-query options are preceded/accompanied by option -q.

--provides: package(s) provide(s) vasclnts-3.1.0-19? Some of what is in parentheses constitutes “capabilities” for the --whatrequires and whatprovides options, but not all.

	[email protected]:> rpm -q --provides vasclnts-3.1.0-19
	libgcc_s.so.1
	libgcc_s.so.1(GCC_3.0)
	libgcc_s.so.1(GLIBC_2.0)
	libgcc_s.so.1(libgcc_s.so.1)
	libnss_vas3.so.2
	libstdc++.so.5
	libstdc++.so.5(CXXABI_1.2)
	libstdc++.so.5(GLIBCPP_3.2)
	libstdc++.so.5(GLIBCPP_3.2.1)
	libstdc++.so.5(GLIBCPP_3.2.2)
	libstdc++.so.5(libstdc++.so.5)
	libvas-gssapi.so.2
	libvas.so.4
	pam_vas3.so
	vasclnts = 3.1.0-19

--requires: lists packages on which vasclnts-3.1.0-19 depends...

	[email protected]:~> rpm -q --requires vasclnts-3.1.0-19
	pam >= 0.66-5 /bin/sh /bin/sh
	ld-linux.so.2
	libc.so.6
	libc.so.6(GLIBC_2.0)
	libc.so.6(GLIBC_2.1)
	libc.so.6(GLIBC_2.1.2)
	libc.so.6(GLIBC_2.1.3)
	libc.so.6(GLIBC_2.2)
	libc.so.6(GLIBC_2.2.3)
	libc.so.6(GLIBC_2.2.4)
	libcrypt.so.1
	libcrypt.so.1(GLIBC_2.0)
	libdl.so.2
	libdl.so.2(GLIBC_2.0)
	libdl.so.2(GLIBC_2.1)
	libgcc_s.so.1
	libgcc_s.so.1(GCC_3.0)
	libm.so.6
	libncurses.so.5
	libpam.so.0
	libresolv.so.2
	libresolv.so.2(GLIBC_2.2)
	libstdc++.so.5
	libstdc++.so.5(CXXABI_1.2)
	libstdc++.so.5(GLIBCPP_3.2)
	libvas.so.4


Capabilities...

These next two are a joke outside a given shop’s own packages. “Capabilities” are something a package can make up to say it supports. So, unless you know the name of a capability, this is useless.

--whatprovides: package provides some capability...

	[email protected]:> rpm -q --whatprovides crapola
	no package provides crapola

--whatrequires: package require some capability...

	[email protected]:> rpm -q --whatrequires crapola 
	no package requires crapola

Nevertheless, on my SuSE Linux box, some of what is in parentheses up above are capabilities including libgcc_s.so.1 and libstdc++.so.5.


Package information...

Get a list of everything in the package including version information, paths, files, etc. This is for the VAS site-license client. (Some slight reformatting here including wrapping.)

	[email protected]:~> rpm -qil vasclnts-3.1.0-19
	Name        : vasclnts
	Relocations : (not relocatable)
	Version     : 3.1.0
	Vendor      : Quest Software, Inc.
	Release     : 19
	Build Date  : Wed 13 Sep 2006 02:30:17 PM MDT
	Install date: Thu 14 Sep 2006 10:16:04 AM MDT
	Build Host  : vassuse81.vintela.com
	Group       : System Environment/Applications
	Source RPM  : vas-3.1.0-19.src.rpm
	Size        : 6610630
	License     : Commercial
	Signature   : (none)
	URL         : http://www.quest.com
	Summary     : The VAS client components (site licensed)
	Description :
	The client components of VAS: vasd, nss_vas, pam_vas, and vastool.
	This version of the vasclnt package does not require a license.
	Distribution: (none)
	/etc/init.d/vasd
	/etc/opt
	/etc/opt/quest
	/etc/opt/quest/vas
	/etc/opt/quest/vas/.licenses
	/etc/opt/quest/vas/access.d
	/etc/opt/quest/vas/group-override.sample
	/etc/opt/quest/vas/user-override.sample
	/etc/opt/quest/vas/users.allow.sample
	/etc/opt/quest/vas/users.deny.sample
	/etc/opt/quest/vas/vas.conf
	/opt/quest
	/opt/quest/bin
	/opt/quest/bin/.uptool-site
	/opt/quest/bin/.vastool-site
	/opt/quest/bin/klist
	/opt/quest/bin/ktutil
	/opt/quest/lib
	/opt/quest/lib/libvas-gssapi.so
	/opt/quest/lib/libvas-gssapi.so.2
	/opt/quest/lib/libvas-gssapi.so.2.0.0
	/opt/quest/lib/libvas.so.4
	/opt/quest/lib/libvas.so.4.2.0
	/opt/quest/lib/nss
	/opt/quest/lib/nss/libnss_vas3.so.2
	/opt/quest/lib/security
	/opt/quest/lib/security/pam_vas3.so
	/opt/quest/lib/support
	/opt/quest/lib/support/libgcc_s.so.1
	/opt/quest/lib/support/libstdc++.so.5
	/opt/quest/lib/support/libstdc++.so.5.0.2
	/opt/quest/libexec
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/homedir-create.sh
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/manconfig-environment.sh
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/manconfig-man.sh
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/manconfig-man_config.sh
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/manconfig-manpath.sh
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/manconfig-manpath_config.sh
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/scripts
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/scripts/deleted_check.sh
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/scripts/vas_snapshot.sh
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/scripts/vasjoin.sh
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/sqlite3
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/uptool
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/uptool/gecos_fullname
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/uptool/grnam_PARAM_cn
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/uptool/grnam_PARAM_samacc
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/uptool/grnam_cn
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/uptool/grnam_samacc
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/uptool/pwnam_cn
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/uptool/pwnam_samacc
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/uptool/pwnam_upnpre
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/vasd
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/vasd/delusercheck
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/vasd/vas_muupd
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/vasd/vas_ovrdupd
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/vasd/vasac_helper
	/opt/quest/libexec/vas/vasd/vasdis_helper
	/opt/quest/man
	/opt/quest/man/man1
	/opt/quest/man/man1/uptool.1
	/opt/quest/man/man1/vasd.1
	/opt/quest/man/man1/vastool.1
	/opt/quest/man/man5
	/opt/quest/man/man5/nss_vas.5
	/opt/quest/man/man5/pam_vas.5
	/opt/quest/man/man5/vas.conf.5
	/opt/quest/sbin
	/opt/quest/sbin/.vasd-site


More notes on upgrading...

In some package scripts such as the post-install, the passed argument contains “the number of packages we’re dealing with.” In other words, 1 if we’re only dealing with the package to install afresh, 2 if both a new and an old (existing) package.

This fact can be useful in writing such a script, for example, in knowing whether or not to restart a dæmon. Below are the first few lines to put in this script which is also used for Debian/Ubuntu packaging:

	case "$1" in
	  configure|upgrade)              # Debian-only
	    if [ -f /tmp/vasclnt_upgrade ]; then
	      pkg_count=2
	    else
	      pkg_count=1
	    fi
	    ;;
	  remove)                         # Debian-only, but should not occur here:
	    pkg_count=0                   # this is only to keep the script from bombing
	    ;;
	  *)                              # rpm only passes an integer value
	    pkg_count=$1                  # Linux (rpm) passes an integer 1 or 2
	    ;;
	esac


Generating a spec...

To generate an rpm specification, include a template as package-name.spec.in in the main project (package) directory. The template is identical to any rpm specification except that the version field should contain @VERSION@ so that when built, it gets changed appropriately.

Add package-name.spec to the AC_OUTPUT macro in configure.in and both package-name.spec and package-name.spec.in to the EXTRA_DIST macro in Makefile.am.

At this point, the following command may be issued:

	# rpm -tb package-name.spec


Debian package manager details

For Debian/Ubuntu, see documentation at http://www.opensourcemanuals.org/manual/dpkg. These are the commands we’re going to use in an installation script...

Install:

   dpkg -i package-file.deb

Uninstall (remove):

   dpkg -r package-name

Update:

   dpkg -A package-file.deb

Information/ontology (search):

   dpkg -C

List information (less than clearly indicated in the man page):

   dpkg -l package-name